When the acche din were just around the corner, here are two big events that have occurred in the past two weeks (Brexit and Rexit). I would like to talk about brexit in one of my other blogs, and would be focusing on Rexit ( Dr. Rajan opting out of the second term as the RBI Governor) in this one. Raghuram Rajan will step down as the 23rd governor of the Reserve Bank of India when his term expires on 4 September,2016. In this blog, I would be giving in sense of his achievements post his appointment as the RBI Guv, the likely impacts on the markets due to REXIT and the next likely predecessors for the position of the RBI Guv. I will also share statistics in terms of the key indicators before and after Dr. Rajan took over on the Sept 4, 2013.
From converting the Reserve Bank of India into an inflation targeting central bank to forcing a long overdue clean up of the banking sector, Rajan’s three year term has created significant progress. Dr. Rajan, has always been a inflation targeting Guv since the belief was strong that neither higher inflation nor lower interest rates are going to boost growth solely, the growth is always a mix and balance of the two parameters. With his highly focused regime of concentrating on the monetary aspects of the economy by considering various external and internal events has been effective in all the possible ways.
Here’s a list of the key improvements/actions/achievement by the veteran:
- MPC (Monetary Policy Committee) – Dr. Rajan announced a committee to review the monetary policy. Although, the attempt was then tweaked by the Govt in such a way that currently there is a hint of RBI Guv losing his rights to take the final decision on the policy actions.
- Inflation Targeting – Right after taking over as the governor, Raghuram Rajan appointed a committee to review the monetary policy framework. The committee recommended that the RBI formally shifts its focus on to the consumer price inflation index as the nominal anchor for monetary policy in the country rather than WPI. As part of this framework, the RBI was to bring down inflation to 6% by March 2016 and 5% by March 2015. Over the medium term, the RBI now has a target of bringing inflation down to 4% (+/- 2%). Looking at the current situations, the RBI has fairly achieved its targets.
- Revitalization Stress Assets – RBI took various measures against the stressed assets of the banking sector especially in terms of the corporate and strategic debt restructuring norms.
- Bank Licensing – While the process of licensing another round of universal banks was kicked off during D. Subbarao’s tenure, Rajan’s tenure saw two new banks (IDFC Bank and Bandhan Bank) being licensed. The more significant step in this context, however, was the licensing of differentiated banking licenses. 11 payment banks were given an in-principle approval and at least eight of them will launch operations by early next year to increase penetration in the rural economy. In addition, ten small finance banks were also given in-principle licences to serve small borrowers and businesses. Rajan also floated the idea of wholesale banks and custodian banks, although, with no guidelines as of now. The RBI put out a draft framework for on-tap universal bank licensing as well.
- 5/25 Scheme – RBI allowed corporate to extend tenors of credit in case of infrastructure projects thus providing them with a higher gestation period.
- Market Development – Market development has been top of the agenda for Rajan as well. The RBI, under Rajan, has also for the first time put in place a framework for foreign investor participation in the bond markets. The RBI may start accepting corporate bonds as collateral for its liquidity operations.
- Repo Rates Decline – Repo rates were brought down to 6.5% ( Lowest in the past 6 years) with inflation targeting as the key focus.
Apart from the above mentioned monetary measures taken, Dr. Rajan’s timely actions on the monetary policy decision has enabled a huge change in the key macro economic indicators of India before and after Dr. Rajan taking over. There has been a huge difference in the numbers including the credibility in the world economy and the reduction in the instability of the economy. Here’s a quick stat on that:
Although, it was an extremely surprising decision by Dr. Rajan, it was very well anticipated looking at the tension between the RBI and the Govt in the recent past. The markets have reacted negatively because of the sudden decision to not continue. The short-term blip will continue for the next 3 months and might settle down once the monetary front is stabilized post appointment of a new RBI governor. However, markets will keep dipping in the short term amidst the uncertainty on the global front, whereas the medium and long-term trend look significantly bullish.
Who Will Fill Rajan’s Shoes:
Lets look at behind-the-scenes scenario of how the RBI Governors have been appointed till date. Even though the Appointments Committee is the official vehicle to do the job, typically, the Prime Minister’s Office chooses the governor with inputs from the finance ministry and the outgoing governor and, on most occasions, there is no written recommendation. The politicians of the ruling party play an important role in the selection but the corporate houses that normally try to influence the appointment of CEOs of commercial banks do not have a voice here, although they have their own preferences.
Here are some of the options that the government may consider as it searches for the 24th governor of the RBI. The four likely candidates are: the current RBI Deputy Governor Urjit Patel, former deputy governors Rakesh Mohan and Subir Gokarn, and State Bank of India Chair, Arundhati Bhattacharya.
Here’s our quick analysis on who would be the probably choice of the Govt:
- Rakesh Mohan – A former Dy Guv and a veteran economist. Logically, he will be apt for a fiscal role rather than a monetary chair role due to experience in the former. However, politically he might stand a chance in case the Govt is looking for an economics reforms expert to head the RBI.
- Subir Gokarn – A former Dy Guv and a veteran economist especially in the areas of food inflation and inflation related research. However, he might not be the right candidate to head the RBI since that would require the expertise and experience on handling the monetary front of an economy.
- Arundhati Bhattacharya – A career banker, Bhattacharya may make a good candidate against the bad loan crisis in the banking sector. The trouble with appointing Bhattacharya as the head of the central bank is that there is no precedent in recent times of a banker being appointed as the RBI governor. While one of the four RBI deputy governor’s is always a senior banker, the central bank chief has typically been someone who has had an understanding of the wider economy.
- Urjit Patel – Current Dy Guv of the RBI. Urjit Patel, who chaired the committee on a new monetary policy framework, has overseen the RBI’s transition to an inflation targeting central bank. Patel has also been driving the central bank’s liquidity policy as well. According to me, Urjit Patel has the highest probability to be appointed as the next Guv of the RBI. However, the political front of the appointment may be different from the predictions that are logically sound.
To sum up, India was in deep trouble in terms of macro economic indicators and the stability of the economy. Dr. Raghuram Rajan, took over on 4th Sept, 2013 and changed the overall image and credibility of the economy. However, it is a sad event that he choose to return back to academia from being the dashing RBI Guv. Although, he has made his choice to join academia, he will always be remembered as the youngest and the most respected Guv of RBI in the coming years. It will be difficult for any other veteran to fill in his shoes, but however, Urjit Patel and Arundhati Bhattacharya look to be the probable candidates to head the RBI so far. When the acche din were around the corner, its hard to believe that Dr. Rajan has quit.
Thank you. 🙂